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What do you mean by a dummy activity? Why is it used in networking?

Dummty activity is a hypothetical activity which consumes no resource or time. It is represented by dotted lines and is inserted in the network to clarify an activity pattern under the following situations.
(i) To make activities with common starting and finishing events distinguishable.
(ii) To identify and maintain the proper precedence relationship between activities that are not connected by events.
(iii) To bring all “loose ends” to a single initial and single terminal event. e.g.
Dummty activity

Dummy (2) – (3) is used to convey that can start only after events numbered (2) and (3) are over:
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